Prevalence and Factors Associated with Hypertension and Obesity among Civil Servants in Kaduna, Kaduna State - June 2012

Author (s): 

O. Fawole, P. Nguku, P. Nsubuga,G. Saheed, O. Biya

Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a leading cause of adult mortality globally; accounting for 63% of all deaths in 2008 with nearly 80% of those deaths occurring in developing countries. These NCDs which include hypertension and obesity alongside their complications accounted for 27% of all deaths in Nigeria, in 2008. We conducted a study among Kaduna State civil servants to determine the prevalence of hypertension, overweight/obesity and also to identify associated behavioural factors. Method: We employed a cross-sectional design, using multi-stage sampling technique. Structured questionnaire was used in gathering data on socio-demographics, physical activity, dietary habit, tobacco and alcohol consumption. Blood pressure, body weight and height were measured, with body mass index (BMI) calculated. Behavioural factors and overweight/obesity were defined based on the CDC chronic disease indicators and WHO BMI classifications. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used in identifying associations between these behavioural factors and hypertension/overweight/obesity. Results: A total of 801 respondents, mean age 43.2±9.0 years were interviewed, of which 498(62.2%) were male. Prevalence of hypertension, overweight and obesity were 237(29.2%), 283(35.3%) and 216(27.0%), respectively. Physical inactivity was the most prevalent behavioural factor, 730(91.1%), unhealthy diet 724(90.4%), and cigarette smoking 47(5.9%). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher among the senior cadre than the junior cadre [387(68.6%) versus 98(54.4%) p<0.01], also among the physically inactive than active [461(65.0%) versus 38(53.5%) p=0.05]. Age and BMI were independent predictors of hypertension. Female respondents were four times more likely to be overweight/obese than males (AOR=3.7, 95%CI: 2.5-5.4). Conclusion: Hypertension and overweight/obesity with their behavioural risks are prevalent among civil servants in Kaduna. Age and gender-specific public health strategies to promote healthy-living in the workplace are being advocated for with concerned authorities. Word Count: 273 Keywords: Hypertension, Overweight, Obesity, Body Mass Index, Civil servants, Kaduna

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