Epidemiological and Microbiological investigation of cholera outbreak in a marsh slum area of Lagos, South Western Nigeria, 2011.

Background: Cholera epidemics are common in Nigeria and cause high morbidity and mortality. In March, 2011, we investigated an outbreak of suspected cholera in Ajegunle – a marsh slum in Lagos State, Nigeria, to confirm the outbreak and institute control measures.

Methods: A retrospective review of hospital records of suspected case patients was conducted and hospital patients identified. A suspected case was defined as any person residing in Ajegunle with at least one episode of severe diarrhea between January 1 and April 30, 2011. Food and water samples were collected from different sources in the community (11 tap water, 2 water vendors, 5 well water and 5 food vendor samples). Rectal swabs were collected from three hospital patients. Data was analyzed using Epi-Info.

Results: Forty-one suspected cases were identified: with 1:1 male: female ratio. Ages ranged from 7 months - 57 years (median- 12 years). The overall attack rate was 51/100,000 with one death (case fatality rate=2.5%). The attack rate was highest among persons 1 to 4 years. (56/100,000) and lowest among < 1 year age group (20/100,000) (difference not significant; p=0.485). Three rectal swabs were positive for Vibrio cholera 01(Ogawa). All (100%) well water samples were positive for Vibrio cholera, none (0%) of the tap water samples were positive, and one of the two samples (50%) from water vendors yielded Vibrio cholera. Three (60%) of the food samples also yielded Vibrio cholera.

Conclusion: Vibrio cholera was found in multiple sources of food and water throughout the community; well water and food sold by vendors were likely sources. Provisions of potable water halted the outbreak. Chlorination of wells and Health Education for food vendor is advocated to prevent future outbreaks.


Author (s): 
A. Aman-Oloniyo, O. Fawole, P.Nguku, S. Idris, O. Biya , J. Idris, F. Olugbile, F. Taiwo, O. Bakare, A. Odor, G. Balogun, A. Oduneye, D. Modupe, A. Mbata


Presenter (s): 
Olawunmi Adeoye
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