bias

A Multistate Outbreak of Cyclosporiasis

Local outbreak of cyclosporiasis was harbinger of multistate outbreak in 1996-1997; initially thought linked to strawberries, ultimately traced to raspberries from Guatemala.

 

Objectives:

Investigation: 
Outbreak
Country: 
Canada
Guatemala
United States
Year: 
2004
Author (s): 

Jeanette Stehr-Green

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L-Tryptophan and Eosinophilia-Myalgia Syndrome ("EMS")

National epidemic of new syndrome in 1989 quickly traced to a commercial product. Case study addresses surveillance, bias, criteria for causation.

 

Objectives:

Investigation: 
Outbreak
Country: 
United States
Year: 
1990
Author (s): 

Leslie Swygert and Richard Dicker

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Tampons and Toxic Shock Syndrome

The initial outbreak investigations of toxic shock syndrome in 1980 using a series of matched case-control studies.  Case study focuses on matching, secondarily on surveillance.

 

Objectives:

  • Describe the concepts, applications, and limitations of matching in case-control studies;
  • Analyze matched case-control data; and
  • Discuss the issues involved in appropriate selection of controls in case-control studies.
Investigation: 
Outbreak
Country: 
United States
Year: 
1983
Author (s): 

Richard Dicker and Ruth Berkelman

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Oral Contraceptive Use and Ovarian Cancer ("OCs and Ovarian Cancer")

One of the first studies to address the association between oral contraceptive use and ovarian cancer; conducted by CDC using a multicenter case-control study design, 1980‑1982

 

Objectives:

Investigation: 
Other
Country: 
United States
Year: 
1981
Author (s): 

Richard Dicker and Peter Layde

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Cigarette Smoking and Lung Cancer

Based on the classic studies (both case-control study and cohort study of physician mortality) of Doll and Hill, 1950's; addresses study design, interpretation of measures of association, measures of impact, criteria of causation

Objectives

•    Define case-control and cohort studies and the advantages and disadvantages of each;

•    List some of the biases that might have affected these studies;

Investigation: 
Outbreak
Country: 
United Kingdom
Year: 
1973
Author (s): 

Clark Heath, Godfrey Oakley, David Erickson, and Howard Ory

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