Background: On August 29th, 2010, an outbreak of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in a prison was detected. About one half of female prisoners and one third of male prisoners received influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine a few weeks before the outbreak started. An investigation was conducted to evaluate an effectiveness of the monovalent vaccine.
Hirunwut Praekunatham, Karnjanapiboonwong A., Wanna W., Panitchakit J., Rungsawasd N., Iamsirithaworn S.
Background: In Burkina Faso, the tuberculosis (TB) treatment failure rate increased from 2.5% in 2000 to 8.3% in 2006. The risk factors for TB treatment failure in the country are not well known. The study aims to determine the risk factors for treatment failure among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in four health region of Burkina Faso and to recommend appropriate interventions.
Bernard Sawadogo1,3, K. Tint1,3, M. Tshimanga1, L. Kuonza1, L. Ouedraogo2 1-South Africa FELTP 2-University of Ouagadougou 3-School of Health Systems and Public Health, University of Pretoria
Background: Improving vaccination coverage among children of migrant workers (MW) is an important part of Chinese goal of measles elimination by 2012. On July 6, 2010, the parents of a confirmed measles patient reported several similar patients in their village. An investigation was conducted to verify and understand the cause of the outbreak.
Background: From 2008-2010, an epidemic of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in China has reached 3,415,512 cases and 1,384 fatalities. Of 543 focal outbreaks reported, 82% occurred in kindergartens. The current practice to close kindergartens to control HFMD transmission is disruptive and unevaluated. We conducted a case-control study to identify modifiable risk factors for HFMD transmission in kindergarten.
Background: Nigeria eliminated Guinea worm disease (GWD), a debilitating disease earmarked for eradication by the World Health Organization in 2008. Criteria for certification for GWD eradication include adequate general public awareness for GWD reporting. Nigeria’s target of 80% population being knowledgeable about GWD reporting including cash reward for reporting is not achieved. Studies from 2009 and 2010 reported 43% and 41% GWD public awareness in Nigeria, respectively. Nationwide social mobilization and awareness activities were conducted and intensified using radio jingles in three States. We assessed the impact of the intensified activities with jingles on general public awareness for GWD reporting. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using pre-tested, structured questionnaires to collect data on knowledge about the disease, reporting and cash reward. Study population was 2,400 residents from six States using multi-stage random sampling. In three States radio jingles were aired (jingle+) whereas no intensified activities took place in others (jingle-). Level of awareness was assessed and compared between the jingle+ and jingle- States. Chi squared test was used to compare categorical variables. Results: In jingle+ States 54.9% of the respondents (654 of 1191) saw and heard of GWD compared to 23.6% in jingle– States (283/1199, p<0.001). Significantly more respondents in jingle+ States could describe GWD correctly (69.0% versus 48.1%, p<0.001). Description of correct procedures for case reporting was higher in jingle+ States (52.8% versus 17.0%, p<0.001). However, only 24.9% and 6.7% of respondents heard of cash reward in jingle+ and jingle- States, respectively. Conclusions: Awareness creation activities, using radio jingles contributed to increased public awareness for GWD reporting. Using radio jingles should be scaled up nationwide to complement GWD surveillance.
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy has been recognized as one of the undesired side effects of antiretroviral therapy particularly nucleoside transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) .Stavudine a NRTI is used widely to manage HIV/AIDS in Kenya. Following a WHO recommendation that stavudine use be discontinued, health authorities sought information on the local magnitude of the problem to guide policy change. We determined the prevalence and associated factors for peripheral neuropathy among patients on stavudine attending Meru District Hospital Comprehensive Care Centre.
Martin Thuranira , J. Omolo , S. Amwayi , A. Abade , J. Oundo, M. Kiptoo and Z. Ng’ang’a
Background: Hypertension (HT) is a major public health concern with increasing prevalence in EMRO, where Iraq had the highest prevalence. Studies on HT are a basis for rational planning of health policy. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence undetected, untreated and uncontrolled HT among adult population in Nasisriya city/ Iraq.
Background: Nosocomial infections (NIs) due to multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are associated with longer hospital stay, worse outcome and costly therapies. In Hungary, patients with NI caused by a MDRO are notified to the National Nosocomial Surveillance System (NNSS) since 2004. We aimed to determine risk factors for death in patients infected with a MDRO.
Background: On 14th September, 2010 a private practitioner reported a cluster of school children studying in private English medium school suffering from hepatitis. We investigated the outbreak to plan containment measures. Method: We defined a case as fever, vomiting, yellow coloration of conjunctiva or colored urine since 20th July, 2010 among the school children. We collected information regarding age, sex, residence, date of onset of symptoms, travel history, supply of drinking water and inspected the food kiosk inside the school premises. We sent sera samples for laboratory confirmation of hepatitis. We conducted a case control study among school children and calculated odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and population attributable fraction. Results: We identified 119 cases of jaundice among 1320 children with overall attack rate of 9% (Males-11%, Females-7%). All case patients were school children aged less than 19 years. The index case occurred on 20th July, 2010 and most of the hepatitis case-patients were clustered in neighborhoods around the school. We recruited 119 controls among school children. Swallowing of tamarind water containing ‘gupchup’ served at the mobile food kiosk in the school is associated with hepatitis (OR: 8.6, 95% CI: 4.5 – 16, PAF – 96%).Of the seven sera samples three tested positive for IgM antibody for Hepatitis E and three for Hepatitis A. Conclusion: An outbreak of Hepatitis occurred among the children of affluent urban school due to swallowing of contaminated tamarind water in ‘gupchup’. We recommended to ban the vending of ‘gupchup’ in the food kiosk, disinfection of drinking water and educated the school children and food vendors to practice food and personal hygiene.
Baral P1, Swain S2, Manickam P3, Murhekar M.3 1.MAE-FETP Trainee, National Institute of Epidemiology, Chennai, India 2.MAE-FETP Graduate, National Institute of Epidemiology, Chennai 3.National Institute of Epidemiology, Chennai