EIS_Intl_Night_2011

Outbreak of Cholera, East-Akim Municipality, Ghana, November, 2010

Background: Cholera is an acute infectious illness with profuse watery diarrhea caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 or O139. World–wide, an estimated 3–5 million cholera cases with 100,000–120,000 deaths occur annually. In Ghana, over 9000 cholera-cases with 250 deaths were recorded in 1999. Provision of safe water and sanitation prevents cholera outbreaks. On October 29th 2010, the East-Akim Municipality (EAM) received a report of suspected cholera outbreak.

Year: 
2008
Author (s): 

Joseph Opare 1, 2, Der1, 2, K .Afakye1, G. Bonsu2 C. Ohuabunwo1, E. Afari1, S. Sackey1, F. Wurapa1, J.

Presenter (s): 
Opare
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An Evaluation of the Effect of High Concentrations of Environmental Manganese on Young Children in Zestaphoni, Georgia, 2010

Background: Chronic inhalation of manganese and high concentration of its by-products affects respiratory organs, nervous and reproductive systems. A large manganese factory processing raw manganese is located in Zestaphoni, Georgia. We evaluated the influence of high concentration of manganese in the environment on the health of young children. Methods: A cohort study was designed. Residents from Zestaphoni aged 3-6 years were defined as exposed. An unexposed group was selected from aged matched residents of the neighboring city of Vani, located 50 kilometers from Zestaphoni. Both study groups were selected randomly from a large name listing of all children in local day care facilities and kindergartens. Mothers of children were interviewed by using standard questionnaire that included history of any physician diagnosed illness within the last 12 months of the study and the child’s mental development status. Environmental samples of air, soil, and drinking water in homes, day cares and kindergartens were measured for levels of manganese. Results: 172 exposed and 172 unexposed children participated in the study. Bivariate analysis revealed high relative risk (RR) of cough (RR=3.12, 95%CI=1.5-6.6), acute respiratory disease (RR=2.2, 95%CI=1.3-3.7), bronchitis (RR=14.2, 95%CI=4.5-45.1), pneumonia (RR=3.1, 95%CI=0.6-14.9) among exposed group. No correlation of delayed mental development or neurological diseases and being a resident in Zestaphoni was found. Manganese concentration was 2-18 folds higher than permissible doses in different samples of air and soil from Zestaphoni. Conclusions: High relative risk for development of acute respiratory disease, bronchitis, and pneumonia among residents of Zestaphoni region may be connected to high concentration environmental manganese. Recommendation was given to the factory management to implement air cleaning system to avoid release of hazardous chemical substances into the environment. Keywords: manganese, bronchitis, pneumonia, respiratory disease, cohort study Word count: 271

Year: 
2009
Author (s): 

Nana Mebonia, K.Dadiani, N.Gabriadze, N.Chakvetadze, N.Kazachashvili, M.Mircxulava, T.Adamia, P.Imnadze

Presenter (s): 
Mebonia
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Knowledge, attitudes and practices about cholera prevention in Santo Domingo during November-December, 2010: A risk communication campaign evaluation.

Introduction: In November 2010, following an outbreak of cholera in Haiti, the first cases of cholera in the Dominican Republic were identified in Santo Domingo. The Ministry of Health immediately launched a cholera prevention campaign. Three weeks later, we conducted a survey to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices about cholera prevention. Methods: We conducted a two-stage randomized cluster survey. We administered a questionnaire to each head of household and tested drinking water for residual chlorine. We defined households as poor using the National Statistics Office method of assets ownership. We calculated frequencies and odds ratios (OR) with 95%CIs accounting for clustering at the first sample stage. Results: We interviewed 480 heads-of-households (49% of households were poor, 0.2% only spoke Creole), of which 89% had received cholera prevention messages from ≥1 source (TV 81%, radio 41%, leaflets 13%, and newspapers 11%). Approximately half (54% [49%–60%]) knew that cholera is transmitted by eating uncooked food; one-third (33% [27%–40%]) knew about transmission through drinking untreated water. Prevention measures most frequently implemented were drinking only bottled water (85% [79%–90%]) and washing hands with soap (71% [67%–78%]). No residual chlorine was detected in 78% of households without bottled water. Poor households were less likely than non-poor households to drink bottled water (OR=0.5 [0.2 – 0.9]), wash hands with soap (OR=0.4 [0.2 – 0.7]), or have received prevention messages (OR=0.3 [0.2 – 0.5]). Conclusion: While the cholera prevention campaign reached many households in the capital, knowledge of risk factors remained low. Nevertheless, many households were implementing measures to reduce cholera risk. Additional messaging is needed, possibly informed by qualitative investigations, and targeted at poorer households. Key words: cholera, risk communication, socioeconomic status.

Year: 
2007
Author (s): 

Yira Tavarez, Leonel Lerebours, Julie Harris, Percy Minaya, Luis Bonilla, Oliver Morgan, Raquel Pimentel.

Presenter (s): 
Tavarez
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Factors associated with changes in vaginal cytology in a health center – Costa Rica, 2009

Background: Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of cancer in women globally; in Costa Rica it is among the top three causes. . The objective of our study was to identify factors associated with abnormal changes in vaginal cytology.

Year: 
2008
Author (s): 

Leandra Abarca1, M. Salas2, J.Freer1, P.Cordero1

Presenter (s): 
Abarca
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