non-ID

Acute Renal Failure and a Long Night in Haiti

An outbreak of acute renal failure deaths among children in Haiti, eventually traced to paracetamol contaminated with diethylene glycol.

 

Objectives:

  • Describe the questions and decisions to be addressed before departing on a field investigation;
  • List the steps of an outbreak investigation;
  • List the components of a case definition;
  • Discuss the role of epidemiologic evidence in public health decision-making.
Investigation: 
Outbreak
Country: 
Haiti
Year: 
1997
Author (s): 

Richard Dicker and Linda Dicker

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L-Tryptophan and Eosinophilia-Myalgia Syndrome ("EMS")

National epidemic of new syndrome in 1989 quickly traced to a commercial product. Case study addresses surveillance, bias, criteria for causation.

 

Objectives:

Investigation: 
Outbreak
Country: 
United States
Year: 
1990
Author (s): 

Leslie Swygert and Richard Dicker

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An Epidemic of Thyrotoxicosis

Outbreak with unknown etiology and mode of transmission, crossing state lines, 1985; a nice wrap-up study, but domestic U.S. focus.

 

Objectives:

  • Define and perform calculations of sensitivity, specificity, predictive-value of a positive test, and predictive-value of a negative test;
  • Describe the relationship between prevalence and predictive value;
  • Discuss the trade-offs between sensitivity and specificity;
  • List the principles of a good screening program.
Investigation: 
Outbreak
Country: 
United States
Year: 
1987
Author (s): 

Frederic Shaw and Richard Dicker

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A Mixed Bag in Michigan ("PBBs in Michigan")

Based on the exposure of farm animals to feed contaminated with polybrominated biphenyl in 1973, and the subsequent concerns about human health.

 

Objectives:

  • Describe the role of each government agency involved in a contaminated food situation;
  • Discuss different options for studying the human health effects following an environmental exposure;
  • Calculate sample size requirements for a community survey;
  • Discuss the reasons for and limitations of a registry following an environmental exposure.
Investigation: 
Other
Country: 
United States
Year: 
1981
Author (s): 

Clark Heath

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Oral Contraceptive Use and Ovarian Cancer ("OCs and Ovarian Cancer")

One of the first studies to address the association between oral contraceptive use and ovarian cancer; conducted by CDC using a multicenter case-control study design, 1980‑1982

 

Objectives:

Investigation: 
Other
Country: 
United States
Year: 
1981
Author (s): 

Richard Dicker and Peter Layde

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Cigarette Smoking and Lung Cancer

Based on the classic studies (both case-control study and cohort study of physician mortality) of Doll and Hill, 1950's; addresses study design, interpretation of measures of association, measures of impact, criteria of causation

Objectives

•    Define case-control and cohort studies and the advantages and disadvantages of each;

•    List some of the biases that might have affected these studies;

Investigation: 
Outbreak
Country: 
United Kingdom
Year: 
1973
Author (s): 

Clark Heath, Godfrey Oakley, David Erickson, and Howard Ory

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An Epidemic Disease in South Carolina

Based on Goldberger's studies of pellagra in the Southeastern United States in the 1910s; uses descriptive epidemiology and biologic categories of disease; presented as an unidentified illness (no clinical info) to focus thinking on epidemiologic features.  Good as either introductory (descriptive epi) or wrap-up (epidemiologic reasoning) exercise.

Objectives: 

• Apply the principles of descriptive epidemiology (time, place, person) in the investigation of a disease outbreak;

Investigation: 
Outbreak
Country: 
United States
Year: 
1947
Author (s): 

Alex Langmuir

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